Black Hat Cooperative

. 5 min read

Around the time Oculus Rift completed its Kickstarter, I brought my virtual reality headset to a weekend hackathon called the Global Game Jam. Over 48 hours, my team and I built a game prototype where one player navigates his way through a maze, while a second player types instructions to him. The prototype was pretty simple — thrown together in 48 hours, after all — but people had a blast playing it. So a few friends and I decided to build it into something bigger. Over the past three years, we’ve worked nights and weekends to create Black Hat Cooperative, a multiplayer stealth game. We launched in June 2016 on Oculus and Steam.


Here’s how we went from a hacked-together prototype to a popular game.

We call ourselves “Team Future” — four friends on a mission to create social games using new technology.

Idea Seed

Our initial inspiration for the game came from “The Matrix.” There’s a scene in the beginning of the movie where the hero, Neo, gets a call from a mysterious stranger. “They’re coming for you, Neo, and I don’t know what they’re going to do.” It’s Morpheus, who warns Neo that there are dangerous agents who are hunting him down. He then gives Neo directions to help him escape.

Neo getting the call. Still from The Matrix, Warner Bros.

Our game works the same way. Player one runs around in a 3D VR maze, and player two sees a map and types out instructions for player one to follow. By making the communication of asymmetric experiences our key game mechanic, people can enjoy the experience together. This is important because VR is an immersive medium, but it can be socially isolating.

Refining the Game

Since each of the players sees a different screen (one in 3D and one in 2D), we tried my best to play to the strengths of each medium. VR is great at immersive and suspenseful experiences, so the VR player is the player of action, sneaking around to get treasure and running like hell to escape from enemy agents. A screen is great at showing flat data, and the player who sees it has access to a keyboard. So the hacker player sees a very detailed map and types to control everything.

Screenshots from the game. On the left is the view the Rift player sees in VR. One the right is the view of the hacker player, who sees a 2D map.

Cooperation is critical to this game. We designed it be impossible to win by yourself — unless you cheat by looking at both screens. The VR player determines where the game goes, but there are agents around the corner that only the hacker can see, as well as hidden trap doors and lasers. On the screen below, the VR player is blocked by a door. But there’s a password that they can give the hacker player to unlock it.

There’s also a mechanic for the VR player to scan enemies and gather “bits,” the diamond-looking things, which are used to purchase bonus abilities like freezing or blinding enemies. This spices things up, so they have more agency in the game.

Design Tools

Part of designing something well is also designing how you work. With a team of four, we didn’t have the time to carefully craft every aspect of the game. So Mark, the developer, and I made a modular level building kit in Unity that allows people to build a level in just a few minutes. Everyone on the team could pitch in to create VR content.

On the left, the Level Building Kit that we used to create the game levels on the right. Our engineer, Mark, worked hard to create Unity tools, which saved us a lot of time.

Our art pipeline got pretty crazy. I made the 2D assets in Illustrator so that I could avoid fussing with the resolution. For 3D assets, I made pixel sketches in Photoshop, turned them into 3D voxel art using Qubicle, played with the textures in Maya, and transferred models to Unity using Picavoxel. Finally, I set up prefabs in Unity so that I could easily swap the art in and out. The process allowed me to quickly pump out consistent and professional art, and instantly test it out in VR — a huge help for a solo artist.

Having an efficient pipeline is critical. It doesn’t matter if you can create beautiful, high-resolution art if you can’t get it into the game.

Key Tips for Would-Be VR Designers

This process wasn’t always easy. Here are some important things to keep in mind as you work on your own games.

  1. VR is not 2D. Or even 3D. I’ve done a ton of 2D and 3D design before, but VR is nothing like it. I had to develop entirely new design processes, and it was critical to test the game over and over again inside VR to get things just right.
  2. Details matter, even for a baseline experience. If 2D UI just a little bit off, it looks funny. Misplace VR UI and people throw up. Getting everything right — from careful sizing of the environment to UI placement to 3D audio cues — is critical.
  3. Offer alternative control schemes. This was a tough lesson. When we initially launched, we had a firestorm of complaints because we only had the default control scheme. We had to scramble to create a snap turn comfort mode and a teleportation mode.
  4. Test in VR. Some of our biggest missteps happened because we had ideas that we didn’t test quickly enough.I foolishly made the controls more complicated than they needed to be. Since players have VR headsets covering their eyes, we had to constantly remind them about controller locations because they couldn’t see them.
  5. Allow the audience to engage. VR can become an amazing social experience when you let your players share the game.

Launching the Game

We’re pretty thrilled with we managed to put together. Here’s a quick video to show what it feels like in action.

In June 2016, we finally launched the game on the Oculus Store and Steam. We’re the fourth highest ranked game (at the time) on the Oculus store. Give it a try — I’d love to hear what you think.

Try it on Steam / Try it on Oculus

Originally published at on November 16, 2016. Thanks to Elise Craig and the IDEO Labs team for helping edit!

Xin Xin

Designer of healthcare, games, ceramics, and tiny houses. Name translates to spicy happy in Chinese. Currently a senior product designer at One Medical.